The traditional Tao residence is a semi-basement house, half above the ground and half underground. A comprehensive unit of semi-basement house is consisted of the main house, a working room and a balcony. The main house faces the ocean and is surrounded by steps built according to the land altitude. Only the roof is above the ground. The excavated soils are piled around the house to create a semi-cave shape. In front of the main house are several large stones, which are backsupporting stones for resting. The working room is built on the ground, often a rectangular room. The balcony in front of the house is built with a roof but no walls. It is well ventilated and has a great view, often functioning as a social place for villagers gathering to rest and chat. The semi-basement house is warm in winter and cool in summer. It is the symbol of Tao people's wisdom. As time changes, many semi-basement houses at Orchid Island(Lanyu) are renovated into standalone modern buildings. The only tribes still preserving the traditional dwelling are Langdao (Iraraley) and Ivalino.